Disturbing phenomenon known since the dawn of time, the prophetic dreams that inform us about our future are not legends, but the product of one of the most incredible faculties of our mind …
We are in the United States in the 2050s. The company eliminated the crime through a system of prevention as surprising as sophisticated. Three young mediums immersed night and day in a pool, and thus completely cut off from the outside world, are connected to computers that capture their dreams. Their distinctive feature: they dream only of murder … Observed, images of their dreams, nightmares, sorted and analyzed, can uncover some elements of the crimes to come … The movie ‘Minority Report’ Spielberg is certainly a remarkable sci-fi adventure, but is not necessarily unfounded.
Impossible, premonitory dreams? Not necessarily.Psychoanalyst and rationalist, Jeanne-Marie has never believed in these strange phenomena, until one day – or rather one night – where she dreamed that her sister had a car accident at the junction St. John. She pondered this unpleasant dream, wondering why, subconsciously, she was angry with his sister and desired his death. Three days later, the accident occurred, fortunately without serious … at the crossroads St. John. Who was the most traumatized of the two sisters? Jeanne-Marie, of course!
Announcing dreams and future events were recorded by thousands throughout our history, whatever the era or civilization. Unlike dreams ‘normal’, these special dreams contain information that is not symbolic ‘speak for themselves’: the images are much clearer, more ‘real’ than usual in a dream and are not disguised. They do not need to be analyzed to be understood.
From the birth of scientific parapsychology, in the late nineteenth century, researchers sought to discover whether this form of premonition was not part of a process of ‘unconscious logic’ – that is to say, construction, by the brain, an event which all signs are normally invisible. Indeed, it is capable of recording unknown to us a tremendous amount of tiny details lost in the mass of external information: inaudible sounds, fleeting images, unspoken microvibrations, odors, etc.. During sleep, the brain does the sorting, sorts information, correlates, and can predict events whose logic is inaccessible to the waking state. That may actually explain the prescient – wrongly so – of certain dreams.
The problem is quite different when considering delivers highly accurate information that can not be known to anyone. Thus, the testimony of Fred cartoonist (creator of the comic strip ‘The Adventures of Philoménon’):’After an accident, I left my car to a mechanic friend and asked him to send me a bill quickly. The same night, I dreamed it was 1511.22 euros. This dream was so strong that the next morning, I told my wife. A week later my friend still does not know the amount of compensation. Two weeks later I received a bill for 1511.22 euros … like in my dream! ‘It’s hard to evoke in this case the unconscious logic.
After analyzing thousands of spontaneous cases, the researchers wanted to demonstrate scientifically the existence of these premonitions. But why, one must be able to lead! For forty years, an impressive number of experiments have been conducted in the laboratory.
The most famous was conducted in the late 70s by Dr. Montague Ullman, director of the department of psychiatry at Maimonides Hospital in New York. The principle:while a student volunteer connected to an EEG sleep in a soundproof room, an experimenter monitoring phases of sleep in a room next door. Once it spots a period of ‘REM sleep’, he lets dream for ten minutes, then wakes up to ask him to recount in detail what he has ‘seen’. All night, the dreams are noted. The experience continues the next morning, when another experimenter sends the student a mental picture chosen randomly by a computer. If it appears that one of the dreams contained this image, the researchers concluded that there was a premonition. These experiments have yielded surprisingly positive results and have been repeatedly reproduced.
I had a premonitory dream 10 years ago. I dreamed that a group of policemen stopped me and asked for the papers of my car (which never happened) and I wanted a fine 1500.Le next day at the exact location was happening my dream, I saw the same group of gendarmes.They arrested me (when they were allowed past the cars earlier) and asked me the papers that my car was new and I was driving for the first time. After much discussion they let me leave without asking me fine .. phew ..
In 1998 I dreamed of a female name and a year after I got married with a young woman bearing that name in question troubling …
Hello, I too have been in 13 years to my childhood dreams of what I did and which I felt many emotions every morning and some of my dreams scared me because I had a dream that my mother was on her bed and she seemed to sleep with your mouth open and eyes half closed with a pale complexion and wanting to wake her, she did not answer and she was touching ice enfaite she was dead but it seemed real to me the next day I was sad and scared and 15 years this happened again later and saw that it was not a dream but reality and I, who is very down to earth and my family also n have never believed in this kind of dreams ‘premonitory dreams’, but since that day and much else I can say that it is real and above all it made me very afraid to angst ….. c ‘ is true is rather surprising especially troublant.Je do not know if this is the result of fatigue or coincidence ….
hello, about 2 years ago I had a frightening dream or I had a child who looked like my father, at the end of my dream this child died.messed up my dream much during the week then on weekends I had my father on the phone telling me he had made a infractus but he was fine, next week the day I had this dream my father died. it’s been a shock after having a dream like her ….
The dream is a set of psychic phenomena experienced during sleep. Upon awakening, remembrance of the dream is often incomplete and sometimes nonexistent. However, it is possible to drive the dream recall. Dreams are the most advanced phases of REM sleep.
In history, different fields of knowledge have become interested in dreams, seeking meaning or function.In the twentieth century, psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud sees in the dream fulfillment of a wish. For Carl Gustav Jung, the dream role is to restore balance to the psyche. Since the 1950s, neurophysiology is to the descriptive study and functional brain that dream. But there is, to date, no scientific certainty about the objective use of the dream.
The dream is distinguished from hallucination and dream which, themselves, are experienced in the waking state. The scientific name for the study of dreams is onirologie.
- 1 Perception of dreams in the history of mankind
- 1.1 The Origins: beliefs and dreams
- 1.2 Ancient Greece
- 1.3 Visions and dreams in the monotheistic religions
- 1.3.1 Dreams and prophecies in the Bible
- 1.3.2 The Judaic tradition
- 1.3.3 Muslim tradition
- 1.4 Interpretations in the Middle Ages
- 1.4.1 First texts
- 1.4.2 Gregory the Great
- 1.4.3 Alcher of Clairvaux
- 1.5 Modern interpretations
- 1.5.1 From philosophy to the experimental method
- 1.5.2 Alfred Maury and Yves Delage
- 1.5.3 Experimental Psychology
- 2 General
- 3 Types of dreams
- 3.1 The nightmare
- 3.2 The creative dream
- 3.3 Lucid dreaming
- 3.4 Premonitory dream
- 3.5 The sexual dream
- 4 The dream in art
- 4.1 The dream in literature
- 4.1.1 Dreams and Romance
- 4.1.2 Other sources used
- 5 Schedules
Perception of dreams in the history of mankind
The Origins: beliefs and dreams
The belief in the divine origin of dreams is universal. Archaeological discoveries show that the Egyptians of the Tenth Dynasty already believed that dreams could reveal the future and were using the keys of dreams.The dream as a divine message is also in Greek mythology, through dreams that Zeus sends to Agamemnon or visions granted by Apollo at Delphi, including Orestes. In Orphism and the school of Pythagoras teaches that communication with heaven is performed only during sleep, when the soul awakens, the same doctrine found among Jewish and Arab writers from the Middle Ages . Ibn Khaldun mentions the practice of ritualized mantic dreams among Muslims. The Babylonian oneiromancy had nothing to learn from Greece. The prophetic dream is well known among the Semites, as evidenced by the Old Testament. It was already interested in Sumer around 3000 BC dreams, and in ancient Egypt (-2500).
The dream is also of importance within shamanism. The most widespread belief among all peoples of Siberia that is the life of the body depends on the soul. Keeping a certain autonomy, it can escape during the sleep phase, and the dream reflects this evasion. This temporary absence is safe, provided they do not suddenly wake up someone sleeping.In Xante-Mansi, drawing a grouse on the cradles of infants so that the soul of it will go away too far. If she gets caught by spirits, death is inevitable, unless the shaman intervenes. This lack of soul can be attributed to other states near the dream as drunkenness and disease, madness, too. In shamanic societies, certain types of dreams will bring luck to the hunter. If the dream girl of the spirit of the forest (and also for water Selkup), that is to say game of the donor (giver of luck), the hunt will be successful example. The daughter of the spirit of the forest may appear different in each dream, under the ‘plurality of individual entities, localized’. Siberian shamans are also dream elk or reindeer whose skin is going to be used to make drum. The dream allows him to know where to find it and how to recognize it. It only remains is to share this information for the hunter that he goes to kill him. This search may take a full year.Certain types of dreams are part of the initiation as well. They also often occur during illness. In these dreams, there are recurring themes: encounters with divine figures (Lady of the Waters, Lord of the Underworld, Queen of Animals), spirit guides, revelations about diseases and their treatment, skinning and cutting the body of the shaman.
In Greek mythology, dreams have their own deities, Oneiroi, the best known is Morpheus, the god of prophetic dreams.
Both physicians Greek philosophers were interested in dreams and their meaning. They responded so different from an event without consequences (Aristotle) with the diagnosis of a disease (Hippocrates), or a tool of divination.
Visions and dreams in the monotheistic religions
Dreams and prophecies in the Bible
References to dreams (Somnium) and vision (video) prophetic figure prominently in the Old and New Testament.The dream is indeed a privileged instrument of the divine to communicate with the men: ‘If there is among you a prophet, in vision that I revealed to him in a dream that I talk to him.’ Although the visions are not subordinated to sleep, as is the case in dreams, it is not always easy to differentiate both in the biblical texts. Prophecy is however cumbersome and exposes the prophet. Conversely, when the prophecy failed, the dreams are no longer inhabited by God and Saul complains ‘And God has abandoned and no longer answers me, neither by prophets nor by dreams.’
The Judaic tradition
According to Maimonides, all the prophecies and events revealed to the prophets are in a dream or vision, or not made by an angel, that the ways and means are mentioned or not. He said the revelations obtained in a vision and the prophet grasps the significance of his awakening.The prophets are the interlocutors of God, they are chosen by Him. The state of sleep allows the removal of bodily senses, and one theory is provided by Maimonides to explain the receipt of emanation from God. On the basis of a highly developed imaginative faculty, prophecy is a perfection acquired, but may be troubled by sadness, anger and fatigue. According to him, Moses was one exception to the rule that God communicates his will to his prophets through dreams and visions: ‘It is not so my servant Moses, my whole house is entrusted. I talk to him face to face in the evidence, not in riddles. ‘ Although dreams are regarded as ordinary vanities, misleading and unclean, in the apocalyptic vision of the book of Joel, the descent to earth of the Spirit be poured out upon all: ‘Your son and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams Your young men shall see visions. ‘ Biblical law rejects yet divination by dreams ‘You will practice or divination or casting. Deuteronomy order to beware of false prophets: ‘If a prophet or dreamer arises […] you not listen to the words of that prophet or that dreamer of dreams.’ Jeremy also devotes a book, and he returns to this subject in Ch. 29, v. 8 and 9: ‘For thus says Yahweh, Do not be seduced by your prophets who are among you, nor your diviners, and do not listen to the dreams that you give yourself. It’s false that you prophesy in my name, I have not sent them, says Yahweh. ‘
For the Arab Ibn Khaldun, there were two types of dreams to reflect the scriptures: the ‘true dream’ which is a clear revelation of the divine presence and the ‘ordinary thinking’ which requires an effort of recollection and interpretation .For the philosopher and exegete, dreams real and total imports come from God and those who need to be interpreted are angels. Yusuf, son of Jacob, is described as knowing how to interpret dreams. This talent will serve him out of the prison where he will be imprisoned and then to interpret Pharaoh’s dream, allowing it to become manager of crops in the Egyptian administration.
Interpretations in the Middle Ages
From the original Byzantine, Latin translations of Oneirocriticon Ahmed (tenth century) and the Key to Dreams of Pseudo-Daniel (seventh century), while being in continuity with the ancient Christian understanding, to allow the Royal assertive. They establish such a correspondence of macrocosm and microcosm.
Gregory the Great
Pope in 590, Gregory the Great are three main types of dreams: those due to food and hunger, those sent by the demons and those of divine origin. In his wake, only the divine origin of dreams will be tolerated.The oneiromancy becomes in fact a prohibited practice.
Alcher of Clairvaux
According to Jacques Le Goff, knowledge about the dream begins to assert itself from the twelfth century, freeing itself of its divine origins and satanic. This is the book Liber de spiritu et anima (The Spirit and the Soul), written by a Cistercian monk in the twelfth century, Alcher of Clairvaux, which allows this transition. Somewhat similar to the designs of Macrobius, there are, according Alcher of Clairvaux, five types of dreams: the oraculum, dream that God sends his emissaries, the video, clear prophetic dream, the Somnium, dreams that require interpretation, Insomnium , common and uninteresting dream, the fantasy, ghostly apparitions, in the early stages of sleep, which is part of the nightmare or Ephialtes.
From philosophy to the experimental method
Peucer Caspar (1525 – 1602), author of De somniis, Father Richard (eighteenth century) And his theory of dreams, Franz Splittgerber (Schlaf und Tod, 1866) or Gerolamo Cardano (Jerome Cardan) are the successors of medieval designs.
The modern period is characterized by a profusion of studies on the mechanism of dreams, as well as a development of theories, either biological or metaphysical. Albert Karl Schemer (The Life of Dreams, 1861) distinguishes two types of symbols: those referring to sex or penis or vagina, and those somatic learning about the physiological condition of the body. According to Freud it is the ‘true discoverer of the symbolic dream.’ Hervey de Saint-Denys compiles his dreams since the age of 13. In Dreams and the means of directing (1867) attempt an approach to lucid dream that foreshadows the methods of modern packaging. In his dream is like a puzzle, logic and meaning, and that the sleeper must decode. W. Robert (Der Traum als Naturnotwendigkeit erklärt.1886) considers that the dream is a vital process that allows the brain to retain only the important data and images, dreams are fragments of pictures by process of elimination. It shows that if we deprive the sleeper of the ability to dream, it can die. Robert even talk of ‘dream work’, a concept echoed by psychoanalysis. Among the many scientists interested in having the question of the dream, there is still a Russian physician Marie de Manaceine who, in 1897, in Sleep: its physiology, pathology, hygiene, psychology and believe that dreams can connect to a collective imagination.
Alfred Maury and Yves Delage
In Sleep and Dreams (1861), Alfred Maury made a series of experimental studies exposing the sleeper to external stimuli to see whether they influence the content of dreams. He is the principal representative of an organic theory of dreams.
In his book The Dream (1920) French biologist Yves Delage studies the dream images from actions or perceptions of the day.He also experimented with lucid dreaming. According to him the dream involves two phenomena: the fusion of representations within an image and assigning a document to another topic.
Scholars have, before psychoanalysis, and often in language surprisingly close, interested in dreams as meaningful productions of the mind. Their approach is that of experimental psychology, which appears at the end of the nineteenth century. For Françoise Parot, the main ones are the German physician Carl Gustav Carus and the naturalist Heinrich von Schubert Gotthilf. The first experiments in sleep deprivation, however, were conducted in 1894 by Mary Manacéïne in chicks. It shows that they died after 4-6 days without sleep.
Since time immemorial, man is intrigued by his dreams and tries to explain their existence.As also noticed early on that all dreams are not alike, his explanations vary from ‘not important, it is only a reminiscence of the previous day’ to a ‘divine message’ through the collection of images of dreams as symbols that would predict the future if they knew their interpretation. The historical part of the article shows that all these approaches are found regularly in the history of mankind.
From the nineteenth century new ideas emerge, which result from a hundred years to two different approaches:
As the study of the brain showed that many people remember their dreams if they wake up during REM sleep and REM sleep are among placental mammals, marsupials and birds, it was concluded that they must manifest a dream activity.
Types of dreams
The nightmare is a dream with a high burden anxiety that occurs during REM sleep, which differs from that night terrors occur during deep sleep.
The creative dream
This is a dream which the subject draws a novelty idea of an artistic work, inventing a new concept or answer to a question. The induction of creative dreams recalls the method of incubation of antiquity, but in order to create art or solving a problem rather than in healing. Many designers have found inspiration in a dream by chance. But it is possible to deliberately provoke. The induction of creative dreams is a process similar to the creative process in general, as described by Don Fabun. This process is developed with sufficient motivation, adequate preparation and intensive handling. Strong emotional involvement is necessary. Stages of incubation, the solution of foreboding and illumination can then occur in dreams, or just after awakening.The verification step to assess whether the solution is correct. Many writers and scientists were inspired by creative dreams: Howard Phillips Lovecraft was inspired very often dreams to write his stories (the most striking example is the story called The Tomb, which is an almost exact transcription a dream), the work Kubla Khan Samuel Taylor Coleridge was fully developed in a dream, William Blake has implemented a process for etching copper in a dream that told him his brother died, the Devil’s Trill Sonata composed Giuseppe Tartini was, according to him, a reproduction less successful than that heard in a dream, and finally Friedrich von Kekule dreamed Stradonitz the ring structure of benzene and revolutionized modern chemistry.
In the lucid dream as there is an eruption of consciousness awakened in the course of normal dreaming process.The dreamer knows that the world around it is a construct of his mind and can analyze and react more or less efficient depending on the degree of ‘lucidity’. This awareness, involuntary or obtained through certain techniques, enables the dreamer to control the content and conduct of the dream.
Considered as prophetic dreams, not necessarily related to privacy of the dreamer, announcing a future event that will in fact occur. As the dream of Pharaoh in the Bible.
The sexual dream
8% of dreams with sexual content nature is in order: sexual propositions, kissing, fantasies diverse and varied, masturbation. In 4% of the subjects (men and women) reported having experienced an orgasm. In humans, according to the Kinsey Report: 83% of men aged 45 reported having experienced wet dreams. The annual frequency of sexual dreams with nocturnal ejaculation varies from 4 to 11% in young men and from March to May% Among older children. 5% of subjects experiencing such dreams more than once a week, with a maximum between adolescence and 30 years. The annual frequency of erotic dreams with orgasm is 3 to 4%, 1% having more than one week. The incidence is orgasms dream up quarantine.
According to psychologist Abraham Maslow’s dreams are rather explicit sex makes women confident in themselves, asked, generally independent and active. In case of low self-esteem or inhibition, sexual dreams are more symbolic type. These results are corroborated by Joseph Adelson, but rather on the criterion of creativity of a group of young girls.
The dream in art
The dream is an issue for all arts be it literature, music, painting and sculpture or film.
The dream in literature
In works of fiction, dreams are frequently found as part of the story. However, it is rarer than it is a central theme.One can cite Arthur Schnitzler, New dreamed written in 1925.
Dreams and Romance
Romantic writers were very interested in dreams. The work of John Paul have a lot of dreamlike narratives. In addition he wrote three texts on the subject. Natural magic of the imagination (1795), On the Dream (1798) and Eyes on the world of dreams (1813). The English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote his poem in 1816 The suffering of sleep. In France include Gerard de Nerval: Aurelia, or the dream-life (1855). The audience then had a taste for the dream, the occult and fantasy. The key of dreams were referring to key older. The fragment Heinrich von Ofterdingen (Henri Ofterdingen) Novalis begins with the dream of the blue flower that becomes the face of a young girl. When he awoke Heinrich goes in search of the flower. Subsequently the blue flower becomes a symbol of German Romanticism.
Other sources used
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