It is often necessary to involve family counseling, education controlled, behavior modification and medication.
Parents must establish realistic expectations on the child and avoid situations where the child is difficult to fail. They need to show love and understanding, which is not always easy …!
Parents need to develop auditory memory of their hyperactive child. We need to talk to him often, calmly, slowly, noiselessly around them, giving simple commands. It is useful to reinforce the explanations and requirements for verbal gestures. You must use multiple indications (sight, hearing, kinesthesia …) in learning.
These mothers must ask themselves: how do they speak to the child? If these are some phrases uttered without taking the time to ensure that it has been understood is useless …
We must organize the lives of these children need stability, calm and consistent routine.The child must know the limits not to cross, know and respect the time to get up, eat, play, go to school, working, going to bed. It is necessary that the child has regular activities personal to do: make bed, feed the cat, get the mail etc. … He should be encouraged to go to small errands: get the milk or bread in the grocer next door (under parental supervision of course). Let the child feel useful, important and responsible. Appropriate discipline is required.
It is important not to let the child feel bogged down in it is good for nothing, he is a ‘failure’ that will never succeed and nothing properly. Bullying, teasing, arguments do not help at all. More press in the punishment and have no educational value. He must instead recognize, encourage the child when, in his clumsy actions, he finally managed to show a bit of ‘maturity’. We must emphasize its positive activities to give confidence in him.Everyone needs to be rewarded for his efforts and goodwill must be recognized, encouraged and welcomed. Avoid failures and negative experiences in learning.
At school, children experience great difficulties because of his lack of concentration and its specific learning problems. It is important that the teacher noticing and judge as much effort as the outcome.
When these learning problems, concentration, synthesis, lack of emotional control, impulsivity, lack of resistance to the frustrations are not recognized by family and teachers, it could lead to serious problems behavior. The rejected child will succumb to feelings of hopelessness and helplessness that added to his problems. Do not let them build a picture of ‘missed’.
Educators and parents need to be imaginative use of original and creative ways to mobilize the potential short attention of the child.It is necessary to instill the basic principles and encourage the revisions before tackling more complex problems. Activities should be brief and not exceed the capacity of attention from the child.
Psychostimulants are widely used in the United States. The most used are the amphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and methylphenidate hydrochloride. Some authors even consider that their positive effects on hyperactivity are part of the diagnosis.
It is, therefor, a short-term treatment (two days) based on incentives. This treatment does not imply in any way, a long-term treatment based incentives, it just helps to classify the child in one of two categories: individual receiving positive response to stimulants, which is the case hyperactive children, and the typical individual to negative reaction to stimulants, which is the case of children who suffer from disorders that mimic hyperactivity.
United States more than 90% of hyperactive taking methylphenidate (Ritalin), dextroamphetamine preferably, because of its better tolerance. According to many American writers, nearly 75% of children so treated respond positively to the administration of Ritalin.
The efficacy is rapid: in an hour the child becomes less agitated, less impulsive, less aggressive, more attentive, more cooperative. These positive effects persisted for about 4 hours. In some cases we can observe a rebound effect and the basic difficulties recur.
The maximum effect of stimulant medication is two hours after the first dose, then the efficiency decreases during the next 4 hours and the drug should be administered at the moment is to say, six hours after the first dose.
Some children see their symptoms recur 6 to 10 hours after the first dose for the effect of the stimulus runs out.Teachers find the good effects of drug treatment, in extolling the merits while the parents when the child returned home is no longer under the influence of the drug are much more reserved. Teachers and parents can be the opposite view.
Stimulants help to reduce hyperactivity, improved attention, increased vigilance in school tasks. They increase self-control and self-control. Strict monitoring and regular assessment are used to define the optimal dose. Children can of themselves to modulate the dose based on effects felt. The risks of such self-medication are considerable and warrant serious reservations about this. A therapeutic range can be prescribed during periods of leave.
Stimulant medications lessen the negative behavior, reducing the frequency of reprimands and punishments, making the child more sociable and better accepted.
The effects of these incentives vary with age.Hyperactive children, preschool, less responsive to incentives than older children. Negative effects have been reported include sluggish, grunting, sleep disorders and anorexia. Also most doctors do not they prescribe to young children.
The efficiency is lower among teenagers, and although this proof has been made, there was concern that the administration of such drugs can lead to addiction later.
With regard to adults, in whom persistent difficulty concentrating, irritability and impulsivity, further treatment is advocated by some, but not without reservations.
Strict monitoring is essential because of the side effects stimulants can cause: in the foreground insomnia and loss of appetite.
Other side effects reported were headache, abdominal pain, they are rare, transient and easily handled at lower doses.
One can observe the appearance of tics and compulsive movements that do not persist.In some cases, we observed the exacerbation or onset of disease including Tourette tics involving several muscle groups, various verbal tics such as grunting, yelping, coprolalia (pulse to make words foul language). This event occurs only in children constitutionally predisposed, it should detect before prescribing stimulants. Of quite exceptional it was possible to observe the appearance of hallucinations and behavioral discordant. It is then, in most cases, a mode of entry into psychosis and misdiagnosis of departure.
The slower growth in size and weight has been reported. It is transient. Discontinuation during the holidays help to minimize the dramatic effect on growth. The long-term studies, involving 8 or 10 years have shown that there were no effects on growth in height and weight.
Such drugs must be handled with extreme care and many doctors, particularly in France, will show rightly very reluctant in the matter. The vast majority of them do not use them. Currently Ritalin may be prescribed by a hospital doctor (pediatrician, neurologist or psychiatrist). The requirement in fact requires a thorough review. Prescription renewal by cons can be made by the treating physician.
The cons-indications to such treatment by stimulating the central nervous system are epilepsy and hyperactive behavior due mainly to anxiety, depressive reactions or other psychotic states. Moderate their use for short periods or intervals, can help children concentrate and improves their condition. Potential side effects (anorexia, insomnia, depressive reactions, headaches, stomach pains, slowing growth) are the most often avoided in France.
And imipramine (Tofranil) is effective in 75% of cases. Its anti-depression has a positive action.The use of antidepressants has several advantages over psychostimulants: more prolonged duration of action, no sleep, however, the effectiveness would decline after 8 to 10 weeks of treatment.
Chlorpromazine (Largactil) can be regarded as major treatment of hyperactivity but may give good results in children particularly violent.
The restlessness is an indication discussed versatile neuroleptic: haloperidol (Haldol) or sedatives, thioridazine (Melleril).
This product folic acid would have positive effects .. Many families believe that folic acid is preferable to amphetamine stimulants because of its easier handling.
In case of restlessness, 87% of French doctors never prescribe psychotropic or rarely ever, with 41%, when prescribing, preference given to neuroleptics and anxiolytics, prescriptions of stimulants or antidepressants are more rare Contrary to the practice of Anglo-Saxon.The positive effects of drugs that reduce hyperactivity help parents adjust their reactions, often negative, and to better accept the child.
The prognosis is relatively favorable in the child who has an IQ of average or above average and whose perception problems are limited to visual memory or visual-motor dysfunction when the diagnosis is made early and appropriate education their specific needs.
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How to demonstrate its commitment? Men rely on the concrete and punctual, women are giving of themselves and their time.
‘There is no love, only proof of love,’ said Cocteau. Braving forests of thorns, offer, like Brel sang, ‘pearls of rain come from countries where it does not rain,’ to join his beloved in death, ‘that speaks to the heart of lovers more than just’ I love you. ‘ It is incontestable proof of love play a fundamental role in strengthening the bonds of love.Robert Neuburger (Latest book: The Territories of the intimate, Odile Jacob, 2000), psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and marital therapist, showed that couples construct their identity as a ‘founding myth’, without which no union could not last. And the first gifts we offered feed this myth symbolizing the role that everyone agrees to hold. A ring can mean: ‘We train more than for life.’ A bouquet of flowers: ‘I salute your femininity.’ A book: ‘Between you and me, what intellectual collusion!’, Etc.. Ethologists have described in the animal kingdom, the offerings made before mating. A piece of meat, a fight, a flower to decorate the nest, this is how males demonstrate their ability to meet the needs of females and their young. The American psychologist David Buss is convinced, the evidence of love shared by humans have the same function: to breed, males would demonstrate their wealth and power, females, their beauty.
For the Belgian psychologist Solomon Nasielski, the challenge lies elsewhere: ‘Couples are suffering when one partner feels a lack of consideration and respect. The difficulty lies in the fact that men and women do not express their love equally, and therefore they have difficulty recognizing that their partner is. ‘You say you love me, then prove it!’ they tell themselves. ‘ Yes, but how? We do not have the same ‘method of calculation,’ says American psychologist John Gray (Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus, Michel Lafon, 1999). While the man concentrates his energy to deliver on time a luxurious gift to his sweetheart, the woman regularly distributed by small daily attention. This difference, as we have seen in this micro-performing pavement. Women are more often mentioned the gift of their time, their being (‘I married him’, ‘I gave him ten years of my life’); men, more practical gifts (a ring, a bouquet ).But everyone’s opinion, have a child is by far the best proof of love we can give.
A proof is an argument supported to establish a conclusion. There are two types of evidence considered epistemologically valid:
In real life, most of the evidence, though they may contain some deductive, nevertheless contain one or more inductive elements that make them so a certain level of uncertainty. The evaluation of this often intuitive level will determine the level of confidence that we can bring to the evidence. Most of the evidence used in everyday life are commonly accepted as trustworthy.
If the confidence level of information is not enough, we then speak of suspicion, presumption or index, but concurrent indices may mutually reinforce their confidence level and then be considered equivalent to evidence and accepted as such. We speak then of presumptions.
Probability theory can demonstrate that the addition of conditions to certain evidence not increase or decrease its level of confidence to the certainty or rejection (adding a room to a legal file can increase or decrease estimation of guilt and even guarantee or reject completely) but not adding to evidence certain conditions may not change its character for sure. Should this happen, it would mean that the evidence was not so sure we thought.