Columbine

> > Columbine ; écrit le: 15 novembre 2011 par La rédaction

Caelum Quirk, English teacher, is married to Maureen, a nurse in the same college as him. Caelum hand while at the bedside of her aunt, said the killings at columbine happens. Maureen survives but does not recover. Wally Lamb embroidered with talent around unefoultitude themes: the psycho, the couple is breaking down, the consequences of trauma, and faith in a better future.

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Psychologies Magazine

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A study reveals that the French are the champions of pessimism. And how do you approach the year 2011? With optimism or pessimism?

Psychologies Magazine

in January

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39 ° 36 ’15 ‘N 105 ° 04′ 31’ W / 39.6043, -105.07530

The columbine High School massacre, which took place Tuesday, April 201999, is a school massacre perpetrated by two teenagers, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, with guns inside columbine High School (columbine High School, or ‘school of columbines’), located at columbine near the town of Littleton in Jefferson County in the State of Colorado, USA. Twelve students and one teacher were killed and twenty-four others were more or less seriously injured before Harris and Klebold did commit suicide, making this event the most deadly school shooting in the history of the United States until 16 April 2007, the day of the massacre by student Cho Seung-hui of 32 people at Virginia Tech.

The columbine shootings caused a huge stir in the United States and created a social psychosis on terrorism. She raised many debates on gun control, safety in schools, the impact of video games, music and movies considered violent in the United States.Numerous films, books or music scene began in or were inspired by the columbine massacre, including the documentary Bowling for columbine by Michael Moore, the film Elephant by Gus Van Sant or music Kinslayer of the band Nightwish.

Dylan and Eric

The two authors of the massacre wore black trench coats, military clothing. They film their daily lives, sometimes making short films like Hitman Hireen for November 1998, telling the story of two hitmen praising their services to heads of Turkish cons money. But it is also by ideas that ‘they put forward: April 20, Eric wore a white T-shirt on which was written ‘natural selection’. He claimed that this theory was the best and he had to build at any cost. They wore that day mainly military clothing (Rangers, lashing, combat trousers) and a long black trenchcoat.

Was found in a combat boots Dylan Klebold a medallion with hammer and sickle, symbol of communism. Eric Harris was idol Adolf Hitler;The attack took place elsewhere on the day of the 110th anniversary of the latter.

Life and Dylan Bennet Klebold acts

Dylan Bennet Klebold 1m90 tall and weighed 71 pounds. He was born September 11, 1981 in Lakewood (Colorado) and died April 20, 1999 at columbine High School (Littleton, Colo.). It is the second in charge of columbine High School massacre.

The father of Dylan Klebold, 52 years old at the time, was a geophysicist. Her mother, Susan Klebold, was 50 years and worked with disabled adults. So Dylan came rather from a wealthy family. He also had a big brother, Byron, who was then 21 years.

It seems that Dylan was a prodigy. His parents tried to transfer him to a school in his measure, but it was too quiet and shy so Dylan went to a normal school. Here he met Brooks Brown, with whom he joined the Scouts, and Eric Harris, who took the same bus as him. Through Eric, he knew Nathan Dykeman. Dylan was a boy then blossomed;he practiced many sports, had many friends …

Dylan fit perfectly. It was part of the school’s video club, where he played a key role. He also helped adults to keep the server from high school. During this period he made his amateur film ‘Hitman for Hire’ with Eric Harris in the film, Dylan and Eric were playing the role of bounty hunters who avenged the oppressed. His knowledge thought it was a hoax. Dylan was indeed described as nice and helpful.

His parents were not aware of anything. He did not notice that Dylan was wrong. Similarly, they did not know that Dylan had procured weapons. The only weapon ‘officially’ in this Klebold was a pistol ball that was used to repel woodpeckers.

Dylan had always been influenced. Eric Harris became its ‘mentor’ in 1998. Eric worked in a pizzeria where Dylan eventually join. There, in the basement, they worked out their first bombs.

Dylan was a deplorable behavior with his teachers.He answered them, spat on the ground … He was sent back with Eric and another student had cheated and hacked computers in the school. This behavior does not alert especially his parents who, although aware of the actions of their son, thought it was just a ‘bullshit’ to adolescents.

In January 1998, they stole the computer equipment in a van. They were arrested and sentenced to community service and supported by psychologists. They had a good performance. Dylan was described by police as quiet and thoughtful. He was placed on antidepressants.

Dylan was surprised by a friend trying to give $ 300 to a man. He thought that Dylan was buying drugs, he was mistaken: Dylan had secretly obtain a weapon, Tec. Two weeks before the shooting, Dylan, Eric Dykeman and his girlfriend went to the train fire in the forest. They made a video that went around the world. We see them take such a keel and exclaim ‘imagine what it would do in a fucking brain.’

Dylan ended his senior year.On April 17, 1999 (three days before the shooting) took place on prom. Dylan did not like jokes or dance, yet her friend Robyn Anderson managed to persuade him to come. She said ‘I convinced my friend Dylan, who does not like jokes or dance, come! Either I’m very cute, is persuasive!’. Dylan and 12 friends were present and danced. His friends noticed nothing unusual about him. Dylan was to integrate the high school in Arizona, where he planned to study computer science. The Klebold had booked a studio there and Dylan was happy. The future seemed famous for Dylan Klebold.

Dylan was becoming increasingly violent. He wrote a history of morbid when he spoke ‘to kill his enemies’ … Teachers worried. Dylan told his parents that ‘it was just a story’, what they believed.

Dylan Klebold arrived first in his car. He placed two bombs designed to explode in the cafeteria. He then joined Eric Harris. After a few minutes, seeing that the bombs did not explode, they launched the assault. They injured Richard Castaldo before felling Rachel Scott.In it, Dylan asked if she believed in God before shooting. They walked through the corridors and there, Dylan injured Dave Sanders, a professor, who later died of his injuries. They arrived in the library. After that Harris had asked the students to stand up without result, they fired on the students hiding under tables. There was John Savage, a friend of Dylan. He tells Eric, ‘it was John! John Savage!’ Eric called Dylan. John asked: ‘What are you doing?’, To which Dylan replied: ‘Oh, just kill people’ (‘What are you doing?’ ‘Oh, just killing people’). Dylan was annoyed, he shouted ‘run’ (course) several times before John decided not to go. He had been spared … Dylan went to a table. Cassie Bernall was underneath. He pointed his gun at her and asked ‘do you believe in God?’ (Do you believe in God?). Cassie said yes. Dylan pulled him and the matter rested. She reiterated yes. Dylan shot. Eric and Dylan did other victims and went down to the cafeteria.There, Eric the two bombs exploded, causing a fire. Dylan threw some chairs in the blaze. A few shots were exchanged with police. They turned around and returned to the bookstore. They fired at the police. At 12:08, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold killed themselves. Dylan shot himself in the left temple. He did not die instantly, made a few moves while the blood was invading his lungs and died. Dylan is extremely ‘active’ during the act. Public address his victims he, laughs, pulls into the walls …

Dylan seems to have participated in the shooting result of his depression. His diaries reveal a bleak picture of him, filled with despair. He had a negative image of himself. It failed to feed, unlike Eric, a hatred against mankind, but rather indifference. For him, this way of dying was like any other. The autopsy revealed that he stopped taking his medication. It would no longer matter to life. In addition, highly manipulated, weakened by its vacuum phase, it was an acolyte of choice for Eric. He was influenced by Eric.If the two were friends, Eric had some superiority over Dylan. In addition, his personality, and contrary to what he claimed, Dylan had perhaps not really aware of the seriousness of his act. He seems to have benefited from the shooting for fun (address to Cassie, to Isaiah, shots fired in the walls, faces away from the students, discussions with students …)

A rumor according to which Dylan was shot by Eric. But the ball was driven in the left temple, and analysis revealed that Dylan was left handed and it’s a bullet from his gun that killed him. More, the autopsy proved that did not die outright, and had made some moves before dying. So he actually committed suicide.

When Dylan was shot Isaiah Schoeller, a young black man, it seems that he made a racist comment. However, this does not seem to stick with the image of Dylan, quiet and tolerant. Dylan’s parents said they had always tried to raise their son in tolerance and respect.It seems that Dylan has said that in the heat of the action, his act of violence, or perhaps to please Eric, who was dying at his side, and that this is not really his ideology, contrary to think that parents Schoeller, however, the provocation, the extension and widening of suffering for the victim seem equally plausible.

Life and deeds of Eric David Harris

Eric David Harris was a young American, he measured 170 cm and weighed 60 pounds. He was born April 9, 1981 in Wichita (Kansas) and died April 20, 1999 at columbine High School (Colorado). He is the Principal and leader of the shooting that took place there.

The Harris family first lived New York and Eric went to school there. In 1993 they moved to Littleton, Colorado. Eric went to Cary Middle School where he met Dylan Klebold, who became his friend. Then he met Brooks Brown, through Dylan and Nate Dykeman, present in his Spanish class. The 4 boys became friends.

Eric moved and lived near Brooks Brown. In 1996, he entered the columbine High School. He met his first girlfriend in German class. When she left, Eric feigned suicide with fake blood. He then wrote in the book of the school: ‘Ich bin Gott’ (‘I am God’ in German). In 1998, Dylan and robbed him of computer equipment in a van. They were arrested and sentenced to community service and counseling. Eric y was described by police as ‘serious and hardworking. There will be a place in life. ‘ At trial, this act was considered a ‘teenage bullshit’. He was placed on antidepressants (Luvox), which could have a significant impact on the rest of his life. Eric worked at Blackjack Pizza. ‘ There he developed his first bombs in the basement with Dylan …

Eric was more aggressive.Major user of the internet, he threatened repeatedly with death on his page ‘AOL’ Brooks he considered a ‘fayot. He also sent a block of ice in the latter’s car, breaking its windshield. The parents of Brooks does not lodged a complaint. His favorite game was Doom, a FPS (first game in person). He created levels representing the columbine High School. Eric Harris was a geek, an avid Internet and new technologies, it was also part of the computer section of the columbine High School.

The day before the shooting, Eric spent his afternoons in the garage where he made bombs. He asked a friend to buy the cartridges. He received 100 for $ 25 (about 20 €). When asked if he had to go pull the night, Eric told him he would need it for tomorrow.

Eric Harris’s ambition was to be incorporated in the Marines. He went there to do the tests but was refused because of his salary on Luvox. Eric never learned the reason for the denial.

Eric went to columbine High School after Dylan.He began to unload the material. That’s when Brooks burst. He came out smoking a cigarette and saw Eric. He walked up to him and asked him why he had been absent in the morning. Eric replied ‘Brooks, I love you, you know. Go home ‘(Brooks, I like you, you know, go home’. Brooks went and looked for someone with whom the police. Dylan and Eric found themselves. The bombs did not explode in the canteen. A teacher Patti Nielson, passed them. She thought they were filming a movie lover. Eric shot him. They injured Richard Castaldo (which will remain paralyzed for life) and killed Rachel Scott … They arrived in the library ‘s Eric is here struck down the majority of victims and caused carnage. They then went into the cafeteria, where Eric blew the two bombs by pulling. They went into the library and then fired on the policemen. At 24:08, they suicide. Eric shot himself in the mouth and died instantly. Eric was silent during the shooting. He spoke little and ‘tortured’ his victims not verbally.

Eric harbored a hatred against mankind. According to Dr. Frank Ochberg, University of Michigan, Robert Hare and Fuselier, Eric was in the psychiatric sense, a psychopath, so he felt no remorse, lying for fun (he is aware and recounts in his newspaper), nor the people attending to get something from them (he has found in the fragile person of Dylan Klebold an acolyte of choice). In addition, Eric was a follower of natural selection in the shooting and saw a way to apply his doctrine. Eric admired Hitler, whom he regarded as a god. It does not seem to have fueled anti-Semitic side of this veneration. Note however that April 20 is none other than the anniversary of the German conqueror.

Facts

On Tuesday, April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold arrived at columbine High School driving two different cars. They equip themselves and come together soon after.While Eric was unloading the bags of his sports car, a college student, Brooks Brown (he himself who was behind the complaint against Harris after death threats) saw Eric Harris and tried to talk to him. Eric advised him not to stick around, arguing that he ‘liked’. Eric and Dylan were placed in two strategic points with good views of the school cafeteria and controlling the two main outputs. A homemade bomb, which they had placed in a field near the school, exploded as planned at 11 h 17. The goal was to create a diversion and to mobilize firefighters and police at that time. Firefighters managed to quickly extinguish the fire created by the explosion.

Harris and Klebold then entered the cafeteria of the school to place two explosive charges of 9 kg each. The surveillance video from the cafeteria did not record the time, then the operator is changing band.Once the charges (hidden in large bags) placed, Harris and Klebold came out again and took their places beside their cars. The explosives were powerful enough to destroy the cafeteria or the library to collapse on the first floor. Harris and Klebold had to keep the outputs in order to eliminate high school survivors try to escape.

The explosives did not functioned. After consultation, Klebold and Harris decided to enter the cafeteria. At 11 h 19, a witness heard Eric Harris yell ‘Go! Go!. The two teens then headed to the cafeteria of the school and the attack itself began. They threw a firebomb, and fired. Rachel Scott and Richard Castaldo, two high school students taking their lunch on the lawn of the school, were the first victims. Castaldo was critically wounded and two killed by Scott madmen.

Harris and Klebold then fired on a group of three students coming to them including Daniel Rohrbough was killed, then took them to youth groups and sports lunch on the lawn of the school. A teacher Patti Nielson, thinking that Harris and Klebold were shooting a video enthusiast, questioned them and asked them to stop. Harris shot him in the shoulder and Patti Nielson took refuge in the library where she managed to call the police over the phone.

Dave Sanders, the cafeteria with hundreds of students at that time, told them what was happening and escorted the students in their class to put them under the tables. A first police officer went to the scene and quickly wiped a shootout Harris and Klebold. The warning was then given and the authorities, although outdated as shown by recordings of their radio exchanges, knew that a shooting was in progress at columbine High School.

Harris and Klebold went toward the school cafeteria and then crossed the corridor, firing on those they met without distinction.That’s when Dave Sanders took a bullet in the back pump, driven by Dylan Klebold. The two students entered the library where hiding under tables forty students and teacher Patti Nielson. Harris yelled ‘Get up!’ (‘Up!’) Loud enough to be able to hear the recording of the call Patti Nielson then passed to the police (audio recording of the call to 911). Harris and Klebold asked the boys wearing a white cap to rise (it was customary to wear a white cap in athletes columbine High School). Nobody gets up, with two teenagers began to cross the library, drawing on students hiding under tables, chatting with some prior to slaughter or to let them go (as John Savage, a friend of Dylan, to whom it has shouted from or Cassie Bernall who Eric asked, ‘Do you still believe in God?’ – the girl who answered yes when Eric opened fire killing her instantly) and then committing the bulk of their massacre:ten victims died while in 7 minutes. They also launched several bombs, though many of them did not work.

After several minutes, visibly tired, Harris and Klebold planned together on the actions then taken (to kill gun does more excited, they conjured the idea of using knives). Dave Sanders had just died few minutes after being hit. Ancley Aaron, a student, tried to keep him conscious for some time. At 11 h 42, they left the library and went to the cafeteria they vandalized and then roamed the halls of high school students terrorized hidden in their classrooms or in the bathroom, threatening them with death, but without using back of their arms. Around noon, they returned to the library where all the victims, except for two wounded, had fled.After a few exchanges of gun with the police outside, they killed themselves in 08 to 12 hours a bullet in the head and Klebold shot of shotgun in his mouth to Harris.

Some of the injured victims will remain hidden until the police raided the premises at about 15 h 30. They found the bodies of Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold three hours after the fact, in the library.

The consequences of the tragedy in American society

The columbine shootings caused a shockwave very important in American society. President Bill Clinton spoke solemnly to the nation on the day of the tragedy. Long scenes were filmed by security cameras and can testify to the unending terror that prevailed in the school. The chronology of the tragedy was immediately taken up by several television stations (which was provided by Harris and Klebold), and the news was quickly followed by a wave of indignation and questions.

Commentators, the press and public opinion in search of an explanation, and officials quickly pointed the finger at the impact of ultra-violent video games on youth. Metal, particularly that of Marilyn Manson and Rammstein, has been singled out before one even knows that the two killers did not like Manson. Manson countered the attack by being interviewed by Michael Moore for his documentary Bowling for Columbine. Michael Moore asked him what he would have said if he could meet with Harris and Klebold before the massacre. He replied ‘I do not say they would, I would have heard, what no one has done.’ Manson reportedly wrote the song The Nobodies, on the album Holy Wood (In the Shadow of the Valley of Death) with reference to the shootings at Columbine, and similarly, the German industrial metal band Rammstein wrote the song Feuer Frei! (Fire at will!) On the album Mutter in reference to the shooting, to denounce violence and the free movement of firearms.

Beyond particularly fast in the first weeks, America had to wonder about some of the problems that the tragedy of Columbine, but revealed he was a spectacular example. The school safety was improved. The debate over gun control, recurrent in the U.S., took a breath of fresh air: it is impossible to explain why Harris and Klebold committed the shooting, the very ease with which they have procured weapons firearms that they needed shocked the country and rested, so insistent, the issue of gun control.

Two cults emerged: that of Cassie Bernall, one of the victims. According to some witnesses, one of the killers pointed his gun at his temple and said ‘you still believe in God? ‘And if we are to believe her parents, she reportedly replied:’ yes ‘before dying. Cassie’s mother wrote a book She Said Yes to recognize as his daughter died for his faith and give it a bit of a status of martyr.However none of the students in the library has clearly heard the response of Cassie. The cult, more clandestine, is dedicated to the killers themselves because it has proved very quickly that the two boys were the Turkish heads of their classmates, and they were rejected by those same classmates because ‘different’ (this idea is disputed), so they became the idols of some suffer pain (among other things, Cho Seung-Hui at Virginia Tech and Kimveer Gill, Dawson College).

Before the facts

By 1996, Eric Harris created a Web site whose original purpose was to disseminate levels of the game Doom, created by him and Klebold, but the site quickly became a sort of diary of Harris in which it put its online feelings toward his comrades and friends. Over the months, the tone became more violent and distrust of Harris to society more evident. Harris began to publish methods for manufacturing explosives.1997 when Harris published on its website death threats on an acquaintance, the parents of the latter lodged a complaint and an investigation was opened. Michael Guerra, deputy sheriff of the county, discovered that Harris had published a list of people to shoot first at columbine High School, and the content of his remarks was generally of great violence. The idea of dying or killing those who do not like it was clearly present in the writings of the young. Guerra wrote a report which remained a dead letter and that we learned about in 2001 two years after the massacre, thanks to the television show 60 Minutes. Eric and Dylan were facing the judge after ‘January incident’ (named for both), where they had stolen computer equipment from a van. He was put forward by the judge that the young needed psychological help.

Once the known existence of this report, a series of investigations were carried out on Jefferson County.We then learned that several days after the columbine massacre, officials of the county had met secretly and decided not to make public the existence of this report. It was realized that the files of Inspector Guerra on this issue had disappeared from the county computers. We finally managed to regain partial copies of these files but the original seems to date lost.

In January 1998, Harris and Klebold were arrested after stealing computer equipment in a van. They were subject to compulsory psychiatric treatment, which lasted two months. It appears that Harris and Klebold had made the decision to plan the killing shortly after this episode. One thing is certain: the shootings at columbine has been decided many months before he was executed and its conduct has been drawn with precision. The two students had prepared an action sounding and knew that it would be their doom.They were also aware of the image that the media and public opinion give them excused themselves in advance and in a video for parents, recorded shortly before the massacre. Harris withdrew most of the pages of its website, however, allowing online sections devoted to guns and homemade explosives. They acquired little by little the arsenal necessary for their business. A friend of Klebold helped them get some weapons and they began to prepare homemade explosives, mostly drawing their information from websites. Diaries and videos of two boys found after the tragedy allowed to follow the subsequent evolution and development plans of two teenagers who have a scheduled time to commit further attacks or to escape from Mexico.

In 1999, months before the fact, Eric and Dylan are becoming more determined in the organization of their killing.They make a series of videos called ‘Basement Tapes’ or they filmed expressing their hate against humanity, against the behavior of some members of the campus (especially Rachel Scott, they kill first) and dream of making their killing one of largest in U.S. history. in one of these videos, Dylan says ‘the most deaths in the history of the United States (‘ the most deaths in U.S. history ‘) Eric responds by kissing his gun and said’ I hope … ‘Dylan Then he said 250 people would dream to do, to do the killing ‘the most intense 15 minutes of my life’ In this video dating a month before the killings, they discuss all the consequences that this event could have hoped for a ‘chain reaction’ and ‘start a revolution’ they discuss all about the fact that between Steven Spielberg and Quentin Tarantino could make a film about their story.

The fact that various legal

Judge Lewis Babcock dismissed the complaint of parents of victims against several production companies, film and video games.The judge ruled that the producers could not foresee that their works were directly inspired the two teenagers in Littleton. Covered included the film’s producers, Scott Kalvert Basketball Diaries, the two young often evoked.

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